Mainly due to China’s investment in oil and infrastructure, which overtook the US to become Africa’s biggest trading partner in 2009, waves of migrants have temporarily settled in many African countries to work as construction workers and traders. (MCD) septembre 2015. Une population s’intégrant dans les pays d’accueil sans s’assimiler, c’est-à-dire conservant une conscience identitaire liée à la mémoire de la société et du territoire d’origine. Over the past decade there has been an accelerating trend of Chinese migration in Europe. La diaspora entretient un rapport particulier au territoire. The United Kingdom has the largest Chinese population in the region. Lagos and Kano host the biggest Chinese communities in Nigeria. Chinese population in Russia is estimated around 300,000 (European Chinese Association, 2008) and the main communities are in Moscow Chinatown, where around 15,000 live (Neumeyer, 2012) and in the Russian Far East (Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and Ussuriysk). French Chinese communities are the oldest communities in Europe. This is the Country with the largest Chinese population outside China. Between the 1950s and the 1980s widespread violence and instability in the region shifted the destination of Chinese migrants to more industrialised areas including North America, Europe, Japan and Australia. At the same time, the cultural influence sponsored by international Chinese cultural and artistic institutions abroad has been decisive. Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Ghana in particular might be the next most attractive African destinations (Grill, 2013). Managed to export and settle in several South American cities such as Lima. Accessed 09/04/2014. & Wu 2013). [i] A quarter of a century later, the notion of an ‘invisible’ Chinese migrant in Italy is hard to fathom. Résumé de l'exposé . According to the Blue Book of International Migrations of China, China is undergoing its third wave of migration. The number of Chinese migrants is, however, relatively low compared to other immigrant groups in the rest of the world. Les diasporas asiatiques (chinoise, indienne) occupent une part croissante des diasporas mondiales tout en représentant une faible part de la population d’origine. One main challenge is on the economic level; the power of the business of the Chinese migrants has increased and sometimes it has overcome the economy of the host country. Also Kuala Lumpur and Penang are popular sites for Chinese diaspora. A group of roughly 70 Chinese carpenters from Macau hired by the renegade British Captain John Meares. 1580589 . Over the last decade the Chinese population in the Western part of Russia has increased to 300,000 people. The Overseas Chinese population in Thailand is 9,392,792 (2012) makes up approximately 11% of the entire population. Des groupes dispersés qui conservent et développent entre eux et avec la société d’origine (lorsqu’elle existe encore), des échanges matériels et immatériels organisés en réseaux (personnes, biens, informations, capitaux, etc.). Out of 40 million overseas Chinese, 30 million are found here, making up about 10% of the population in Southeast Asia (Chee-Beng Tan, 2013). The estimated Chinese population in Europe is about 2.15 million (Gui, 2011) and the most striking point regarding migration from China to Europe are the rise in forms of irregular migration and the expansion of new channels of migration, especially student migration. Consequently, Southern European countries have been the main focus of Chinese migration for the past 30 years. The analysis will begin by providing some statistics related to the major Chinese communities spread across each continent. MARC View. To conclude, the Chinese Diaspora has led to several impacts both on the indigenous communities and the host countries on the economic, political and cultural level, both positively and negatively. The data presented in this section intends to give a detailed outline about Chinese Diaspora and their presence in the global community. | The main settlement is in Johannesburg, where there are two Chinatowns and an estimated 350,000 Chinese residents (Cox, 2013). The overseas Chinese population is 1,637,540 (2012) and represents about 3% of the entire population. There are around 749,000 Ethnic Chinese in Australia (2011). diaspora’s identity perception and presentation, this thesis employs a qualitative approach with the methods of semi-structured interview and online observation, under the restriction of limited resource. In Asia, Singapore is the most important destination for the Chinese migrants, and it is also the most developed economic centre for this community, with a current overseas Chinese population of 2,832,510 living there. While short episodes of Chinese migration can be traced back through history, the phenomenon generally referred to as “Chinese Diaspora” only dates back to the mid-19th century (Liu & Van Dongen, 2013). La diaspora chinoise en Occident. La diaspora chinoise aujourd’hui . For instance, the cultural ties increased considerably in the Indonesian government legalized the right of ethnic Chinese to become naturalized citizens, taking up the policy of cultural pluralism and religious and cultural freedoms (Larin, 2014). Nevertheless Chinese citizens coming from urban areas, mainly from the city of Beijing, have begun to migrate. China and India account for 35% of migrants in the world: more than 70 million people. Guangdong y Hainan still represents the majority of the newly-constituted Chinese Diasporas. Only in the last decades of the century, in the period of globalization, have constant and increasing transnational diasporic activitie… Paris : Ophrys, 2000 (OCoLC)606363327 Online version: Ma Mung, Emmanuel. According to the IMO, there are currently about 200 million migrants in the world. Bringing Chinese diaspora from the margin of the Chinese culture to the core, such studies examine cultural products of Chinese diaspora in both local and global contexts. The amount of data we used describes within every continent in the world the main destination countries for Chinese immigrants and within those, the principal cities which host the largest Chinese diaspora settlements. Though they form a small part of the overseas Chinese population, the Chinese diaspora of France represents the largest overseas Chinese community in Europe. For instance, a huge number of people around the world are celebrating the Chinese New Year or Chinese Spring Festival, which lasts several days. Today, the total Chinese Population in Africa is estimated at close to one million (Migration Policy Institute, 2012), though it is virtually impossible to obtain a concrete figure. Des territoires de destination choisis en raison de la constitution de chaînes migratoires qui relient les migrants à ceux qui sont déjà installés dans les pays d’accueil. The largest communities are in Toronto, with 436,000 people and Vancouver with 348,000 (Statistics Canada, 2006). South Africa has the largest community of ethnic Chinese in Africa, amounting at circa 500,000 people (Migration Policy Institute, 2012). Located at the intersection of the humanities and social sciences, it encompasses disciplines as diverse as geography, sociology, history, anthropology, psychology, and political science. Although France, Germany and Italy have been considered as the main receptors of Chinese migrants, the United Kingdom and Spain are now the most important destinations for the Chinese community (Latham. The history of the Chinese diaspora in the United States is long and complex. The major elements of Chinese culture which have been incorporated into local communities around the world are food, language, medicine and cultural events. The main Chinatown is the one in Ho Chi Minh City, located in the Cholon district. For instance, in Malaysia, the Chinatowns are principally based in the city of Selangor with over 5,460,000 Chinese living there, whereas in Thailand Bangkok has the biggest Chinatown with over 7,221,000 Chinese citizens based there (Tébar Arjona, 2013). Other regions where communities are situated are Pretoria and Port Elizabeth. The oldest Chinatown in America is in San Francisco, though the largest one is in New York City. 3. Chinese people represent the largest non-European ethnic origin in Canada, amounting at circa 1,487,580. In addition, the second generation of Chinese diaspora members may live in cultural borderlands; they do not fully identify themselves either with the culture of their native country, or with that of the host country. That is, the German and Irish diasporas date from around the 18th century or perhaps slightly earlier. Une population dispersée sous la contrainte dans plusieurs lieux ou territoires non immédiatement voisins de celui d’origine. So if migration flows continue, there might be some political and economic issues to face in the future between the Chinese ethnic minority living in Russia (which currently is the fastest-growing ethnic minority in Russia) and Russian citizens (Latham. ChinaSF, Accessed on: 09.04.14, Available at:, San Francisco Chinatown, Available at: In fact, Chinese migration abroad has several implications, particularly on the economics, politics and culture. The first record of Chinese in Canada can be dated back to 1788. The Chinese diaspora is an interdisciplinary research topic par excellence. Concretely since the 1980s, when several landmark policy reforms were adopted by the Chinese government, this propelled the development of cultural links between the South East of Asia and China and facilitated the migration of Chinese people. your own Pins on Pinterest This list may not reflect recent changes . A relevant example of this, can be considered the cultural links and influences that the People’s Republic of China have had on the Southeast Asian region. Other two important communities are in Rome and the one in Prato. Venezuela is home to more than 50,000 Chinese people (Amnesty International Report, 1990-1994). Furthermore, Africa should not be disregarded as a current relevant continent for Chinese migrants, more specifically as part of the new so-called “Chinese economic diplomacy”. By Thierry Sanjuan. The competitiveness with Chinese migrants leads to tensions with the indigenous population; for example in Johannesburg, South Africa, cultural tensions are often felt between the black and Chinese communities, especially since Chinese business is often in direct competition with black business, which is heavily supported by the government’s Black Economic Empowerment Policy (BEE). As is the case in migration processes, the individuals advertise their heritage in the host country and within its community, hence involuntarily also exporting with them Chinese traditions and cultural goods such as science, medicine, food, and design. The main communities are in Selangor, with 1.45 million Chinese inhabitants, which constitute 29% of the entire population. Diaspora | March 17, 2015. In October 2009, the Mayor of Johannesburg Amos Masondo, visited the Chinatown located in Cyrildene, in an act of ‘symbolic recognition’ to strengthen ties between the local community and the South African state. islam et diaspora chinoise asiatique by wang gungwu. The Chinese migrant presence in the African region is proving ever more prominent and important. The number of Chinese migrants in Nigeria has grown exponentially since 1999, including not only Chinese citizens, but also Taiwanese and people from Hong Kong. Aller à la navigation. The number of Chinese from the mainland living and working overseas rose from 4.1 million in 1990 to 9.3 million in 2013. Since the 19th century Chinese citizens have targeted Southeast Asian countries in order to be part of their prosperous economies. Rural-urban mobility, the polarization of the distribution of wealth and the consequent widening of the gap between rich and poor are all relevant factors for this migration. Books Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best Sellers New York Times Best Sellers Best Books of the Month Children's Books Textbooks Kindle Books Audible Audiobooks Livres en français Local development patterns have been strongly affected by the extent, or lack, of emigrant connections. The main Chinatown is in Luanda. The main communities can be found in the United Kingdom, France, and Italy. Over the past decade, Chinese citizens have emerged as the fastest-growing ethnic minority in Russia and they represent the fourth biggest ethnic group in this country. Two years ago, there was an increase in migration of 20,000 people due to Chinese investments in the country and work opportunities for migrants in the region. The main community is in Auckland. The Chinese population in Vietnam is estimated at approximately 1 million (United Nations, 1993) and it represents one of Vietnam's largest minority groups. This is the only Country, China excluded, were Chinese make up the majority of population (almost 77%). A couple of figures can easily help to understand how deep these changes are. Russia / China is always trying to find new economic partners and Russia appears to be a profitable and economically attractive one for the future. Alongside these factors, we can proceed to analyze the current global trends and future prospects of Chinese Diasporas observed in the global community. In particular, Chinese migration to the Russian Far East might also be a source of diplomatic tensions: most of the bordering region used to be under Chinese rule and there are valuable natural resources in that area. Paris : Presses universitaires de France, c1994. In 2001, 33% of the Chinese community was aged 25 to 44 and a quarter of them had a university degree. Diaspora chinoise. The authors believe that diaspora communities play a very important role in not only the economic development of a country but also in the growth of international influence in an increasingly globalized world. In the Philippines the Chinese community is much smaller in number than in Indonesia or Malaysia, but remains in proportion to the native. The overseas Chinese population is 2,808,300 (2011). La migration est souvent de nature "entrepreneuriale", au gré des opportunités économiques (qui se combinent bien sûr avec les conditions géopolitiques) : tel chinois teochew (originaire de la région de C… Written by Loretta Baldassar et al. Most migrants in this era were unskilled workers, driven by the growing demand for cheap manual labour elsewhere. Author: Ien Ang, Western Sydney University. The largest community is in Sao Paulo, with approximately 150,000 people whilst there are smaller communities in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. Discover (and save!) Half the Chinese community lives in Paris, which has three Chinatown districts: the 13th Arrondissement of Paris, the Belleville area and the Temple and Arts-et-Meriers area. Pages in category "Chinese diaspora in Africa" The following 32 pages are in this category, out of 32 total. This process is still evolving today and since the 1980s, Chinese migrants have developed an increasingly “multi-class and multi-skilled” profile, in line with the requirements of a globalised and technologically advanced economy (Ding, 2010). The Congolese diaspora is a tremendous source of human capital that can be used to contribute to economic and social development, especially as the country looks forward to transitioning into a new government after the December 23rd presidential elections. La diaspora chinoise ou Chinois d'outre-mer désigne les populations ayant des ancêtres chinois résidant dans d'autres pays que la République populaire de Chine ou Taïwan.. Terminologie . Nowadays we all can benefit from advantages of the Chinese tradition such as medicine, science, design, technology, as well as benefit from the pleasure of Chinese food, cultural events and festivals. In the case of Canada, which has more than one million citizens, Chinese people represent the largest ethnic non-European minority in the country. The word ‘Chinese’ can refer to the citizenry of a country, a race, a language, and even a culture, ambiguities that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) exploits in order to appeal to the diaspora via the sentimental heartstrings of heritage via ‘flesh and blood’. Aller au contenu. Not only have Chinese migrants and their descendants developed unique histories and identities in the societies where they live, but they were already distinguished by dialect, region, class, type of migration, and nationality in their places of origin. California had the largest number of Chinese immigrants in 2010 with 577,745 people and 32.0 % of the total Chinese-born population (Migration Policy Institute, 2010). much larger than the Chinese diaspora, are of a much more recent historical vintage. The rate is 2.52 times more than the local population growth rate (Minghuan, 2011). The highest concentration of Chinese communities can be found in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. According to the ambassador to Britain, Liu Xiaoming, “Chinese culture is gaining increasing acceptance overseas, which in itself attests to China's progress with a burgeoning foreign appetite to know more about China”  (Xinhua, 2014). ln the United States of America, we can still find important migratory movements from Chinese citizens, particularly in larger cities such as San Francisco (Migration Expert, 2011). In 2010 Chinese people living in the USA accounted for 37.6%, of the population. Despite Chinese contact with North America occurring as early as the 16th Century, there was not significant immigration until mid-way through the 19th Century. In the case of Oceania, several new commercial agreements between Australia, New Zealand and China have been made recently, fostering an increasingly higher interest in the region by Chinese citizens. Finally, the paper will look at the main trends and prospects of Chinese diaspora to develop a better understanding of current migration flows as well as their future implications for local communities. The second requirement for justifying the term diasporais to show that the similarities between separate communities create the conditions for actual transnational linkages and interrelationship. However, China's official Xinhua News Agency reported that in 2008 the number grew to 10,000 Chinese people living in Tanzania. A recent interesting initiative in this field is the CHINA SF, which helps American companies to expand in the Chinese market and, at the same time, creates jobs and opportunities for Chinese investors. The number of Chinese citizens in Indonesia has grown considerably in the last 20 years; the Chinese population has recently risen to 2,832,510 (2010). The profile of the current Chinese migrants has slightly changed during the last decade and nowadays Chinese migrants coming from the rural areas of Zhejiang, Fujian. An illustrative example would be the case of Major UK-based organizations, like the London Chinese Community Centre, the London Chinatown Chinese Association, the Yellow Earth Theatre Company and London Chinese Cultural Centre. la diaspora chinoise tude de cas julien marciniak. Two years ago, Angola was the second largest trading partner of China in Africa, after South Africa. Several traditional Chinese events have been spread worldwide and adopted by the societies of its host countries. Even with the conflicting statistics on the number of Chinese in Tanzania, we can say that in 2000 statistics of Tanzania's immigration showed that they had issued work or residence permits to just 239 Chinese nationals, making them one of the smaller groups of foreigners in the country. The Chinese diaspora in France consists of people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France.The population of the community is estimated to be about 600,000, making it the largest Asian community in the country. However, there is also a huge economical influence that should not be forgotten as local population can benefit from it. isbn. In this way we can find 156,170 Chinese people living in Central America. In the ASEAN countries, competition with Chinese migrant in the labor market and the transfer of Chinese savings back to the motherland, this raises issues with the local indigenous population and plays a bad influence on local economies and small business (Larin, 2014). The estimated Chinese population in Europe is about 2.15 million (Gui, 2011) and the most striking point regarding migration from China to Europe are the rise in forms of irregular migration and the expansion of new channels of migration, especially student migration. China has always represented unknown, exotic and oriental culture, different from the Western way of life. All rights reserved | Contact | Imprint. In the United States of America the Museum of Chinese Historical Society of America, has been using education, visual arts, and the organization of cultural events as tools to bring the American society closer to the Chinese minority. The term “Chinese overseas” is generally used to refer to the approximately 46 million ethnic Chinese living outside China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau. In this way, the Southeast of Asia is still one of the most important destinations in the world for Chinese migrants, but at the same time, other countries such as the US, Australia or New Zealand have gained momentum and constitute nowadays big Chinese overseas hubs of economic power. The diaspora communities of Chinese people are based mainly in Moscow’s Chinatown, where 15,000 Chinese citizens live nowadays (Zeihan, 2014). The numbers of people with Chinese origin in New Zealand are also increasing rapidly. Dar Es Salaam is the city with the highest Chinese population. The bigger the community, more influence and interactions it has with local indigenous population. Economic and political aspects of such migrations are not to be forgotten. In the 1850s Bairro Chino, the main Peruvian Chinatown, was established in Lima. diaspora chinoise chine informations. It will then go in depth into the influence, the challenges and the most important contributions of Chinese culture on the global community. Particularly, in Latin America, Chinese culture has been developed extensively big urban areas like Lima, in Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires (Martin, 2011). Selon Michel Bruneau (2011), le terme « diaspora Â» désigne un phénomène migratoire et transnational répondant à quatre principaux critères : 1. Nevertheless, a third of a million Chinese-Americans are not considered US citizens, because they have already been nationalized. The importance of the Chinese diaspora is widely recognized. There, they could sell both American and Chinese goods. In 2010 3,347,229 Chinese people resided in the United States (US Government Census, 2010).