[398] The Justice and Development Party (AKP) government, in power since 2002, pursue an explicit policy of Islamization of education to "raise a devout generation" against secular resistance,[399][400] in the process causing lost jobs and educational opportunities for non-religious citizens of Turkey. In 2013 there were 98 airports in Turkey,[324] including 22 international airports. [113] As a reaction to the failed coup d'état, the government carried out mass purges. ", "Turkey: Archeological Dig Reshaping Human History", "Turkish Airlines: International Flight Destinations", "Turkish Airlines Now Fly To An Incredible 125 Countries", "Study in Turkey: International Airports in Turkey", "It will be the biggest airport of the world", "Istanbul's New Erdoğan-Backed Airport to Be Named After... Erdoğan", "Istanbul's $1.3BN Eurasia Tunnel prepares to open", "BAKÜ-T İ FL İ S-CEYHAN BORUHATTI'NDA SON DURUM", "Russia to Shift Ukraine Gas Transit to Turkey as EU Cries Foul", "Turkey Blocks: Incident Reports and News", "Turkey leads in social media censorship: new Twitter transparency report", "Velaro Turkey: High-Speed Train for TCDD", "Energy pricing and non-market flows in Turkey's energy sector • SHURA Enerji Dönüşümü Merkezi", "Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review", EU Integrated Environmental Approximation Strategy, "Who We Are? En tout cas, ne vous étonnez pas d’être réveillé en pleine nuit par le haut-parleur du muezzin qui appelle à la prière ! In Istanbul, there are an estimated three million Kurds, making it the city with the largest Kurdish population in the world. The 1980 Turkish coup d'état (Turkish: 12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 coup by memorandum.. During the Cold War era, Turkey saw political violence (1976–1980) between far-left, far-right and Islamist militant groups, and the state. Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision. [252], Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Les mêmes études montrent qu'environ 90 % des personnes irréligieuses sont plus jeunes que l'âge de 35 ans9. [255] The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (990 miles) long and 800 kilometres (500 miles) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. Les mouvements islamiques turcs à Paris La laïcité turque date des origines de la République fondée par Mustafa Kemal dit « Atatürk » (« le père des turcs ») et a été imposée manu militari par la révolution culturelle kémaliste. Turkey has signed but not ratified global agreements on reducing greenhouse gas emissions: the country has not yet ratified the Kigali Accord to regulate hydrofluorocarbons, and is one of the few countries that have not ratified the Paris agreement on climate change. However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. [330] The Bosphorus Bridge (1973), Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (2016) are the three suspension bridges connecting the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait. Like the men's team, the women's basketball team is one of the most successful at the Mediterranean Games. Traces of Byzantine design can be detected; Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia, as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdish tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia, brought with them their traditional designs. [487][488], Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. Renowned Turkish journalists who were murdered for their opinions include Abdi İpekçi (1929–1979, editor-in-chief of Milliyet); Çetin Emeç (1935–1990, chief columnist and coordinator of Hürriyet); Uğur Mumcu (1942–1993, columnist and investigative journalist of Cumhuriyet); and Hrant Dink (1954–2007, founder and editor-in-chief of Agos). The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated. Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture. [69] As the empire gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth; especially after the Ottoman economic crisis and default in 1875[70] which led to uprisings in the Balkan provinces that culminated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878); many Balkan Muslims migrated to the Empire's heartland in Anatolia,[71][72] along with the Circassians fleeing the Russian conquest of the Caucasus. [317] Turkey is home to two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the world's oldest religious site Göbekli Tepe, and numerous other World Heritage Sites.[318][319][320]. 2008-2009.xworld.cc. Acteurs de l'islam entre Allemagne et Turquie [110][111] In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2020. The centralised structure of decision-making in Ankara is stated by some academics as an impediment to good local governance,[121][122] and occasionally causes resentment in the municipalities of urban centres that are inhabited largely by ethnic minority groups, such as the Kurds. [314] In 2018 Turkey ranked 6th in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 45.8 million foreign tourists visiting the country. [346][347][348] Türksat is the sole communications satellite operator in Turkey and has launched the Türksat series of satellites into orbit. [420][421] Two of the five major episcopal sees of the Pentarchy (Constantinople and Antioch) instituted by Justinian the Great in 531 AD[422] were located in present-day Turkey during the Byzantine period.[423]. in purchasing power parity,[275][276] Turkey is the world's 19th largest economy and 13th largest by PPP. La situation était confuse en Turquie, vendredi soir, où le Premier ministre affirmait faire face à une tentative de coup d’État. The men's national basketball team won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship and at the EuroBasket 2001, which were both hosted by Turkey; and is one of the most successful at the Mediterranean Games. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system. Turkey subsequently became a founding member of the OECD in 1961, and an associate member of the EEC in 1963.[95]. The vast majority of these are living in Turkey with temporary residence permits. They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. [274], Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. [249][250] Turkey has officially rejected the claims, with the Minister of Defense Hulusi Akar stating that chemical weapons don't exist in the inventory of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, s.v. In 651 AD, the Rashidun Caliphate conquered Persia and spread Islam as the main religion. Bibliographie [512] The majority of the TV audiences are shared among public broadcaster TRT and the network-style channels such as Kanal D, Show TV, ATV and Star TV. The national dog breeds are the Kangal, Malaklı, Akbaş and Anatolian Shepherd. [12][17][18] From the late 18th century onwards, the empire's power declined with a gradual loss of territories and wars. [68] From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. [174] In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. [354][355], Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. Face à un État « laïque », elle insiste sur le retour à l’islam dans la vie individuelle et sociale. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. Not all were ethnic Turks; some were Muslim Albanians, Bosniaks, Greek Muslims, Muslim Serbs, Macedonian Muslims and Bulgarian Muslims. [142][143][144] Many elements in the constitutional reform package that was approved with the referendum in 2017 have increased concerns in the European Union regarding democracy and the separation of powers in Turkey. [10][11] It is estimated that there are at least 47 ethnic groups represented in Turkey. The Eastern Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Constantinople (Istanbul) since the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD. La République laïque de Turquie trois quarts de siècle après sa fondation par Atatürk The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC,[46] which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area.[13]. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. [406] Non-denominational Muslims have been estimated to range from 2%[407] to 14% of the population. [280] Turkish shipyards are highly regarded both for the production of chemical and oil tankers up to 10,000 dwt and also for their mega yachts. These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), they became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea coast to the advancing Russians. [384] Endangered languages in Turkey include Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Cappadocian Greek, Gagauz, Hértevin, Homshetsma, Kabard-Cherkes, Ladino (Judesmo), Laz, Mlahso, Pontic Greek, Romani, Suret, Turoyo, Ubykh, and Western Armenian. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. Elle des liens avec l’Arabie Saoudite et s’est engagé en politique du côté des conservateurs. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II, but entered the closing stages of the war on the side of the Allies on 23 February 1945. In 1950 Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe. [136] Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. Totten, Samuel, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (eds. The house where Virgin Mary lived the final days of her life until her Assumption (according to Catholic doctrine) or Dormition (according to Orthodox belief),[418][419] and the tomb of John the Apostle, who accompanied her during the voyage to Anatolia after the crucifixion of Jesus, are in Ephesus. [183] Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010, but were normalised following a deal in June 2016. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway. [200] The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President. [104][105][106] In 1999 PKK's founder Abdullah Öcalan was arrested and sentenced for terrorism[101][102] and treason charges. Franc-Maçonnerie, Carboneria et confréries soufies [138][139][140][141] Even before the constitutional referendum in 2017 the Council of Europe said the country had autocratic tendencies and warned of a "dramatic regression of [Turkey's] democratic order". [282][283][284], Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry. Approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country's citizens are ethnic Turks. [492] The country's position between Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks in gaining complete control of the major trade routes, and an ideal landscape and climate allowed plants and animals to flourish. Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as hatip designs in Turkey today. Yüzyış ve XX. Pour Mustafa Kemal, il s’agit de faire en sorte que la Turquie échappe au sort réservé à l’ens… [274], The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. [296] Fatih Birol the head of the International Energy Agency said that fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health system. [151], Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. [274] Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Turkish basketball club Fenerbahçe played the Final of the EuroLeague in three consecutive seasons (2016, 2017 and 2018), becoming the European champions in 2017 and runners-up in 2016 and 2018. Or, dans les années 2000, la Turquie est majoritairement acquise à l’AKP quelle que soit la taille des villes. Following the publication of Ünver's book subsequent studies were published, including a 1978 study by a historian named Bahaettin Ögel about the Central Asian origins of Turkish cuisine. [390][391], A 2016 survey by market research group Ipsos, interviewing 17,180 adults across 22 countries, found that Islam was the dominant religion in Turkey, adhered to by 82% of the total population; religiously unaffiliated people comprised 13% of the population, while 2% were Christians. It forms the border between Turkey and its neighbours Greece and Bulgaria. [10][11] Istanbul, which straddles Europe and Asia, is the country's largest city, while Ankara is the capital. [33] The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, and is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament. The reforms aimed to transform the old religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman constitutional monarchy into a Turkish nation state that would be governed as a parliamentary republic under a secular constitution. [405], The largest denomination is Sunni Islam, in accordance with the Hanafi school. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920). [166] Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009–2010. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion dÉtat, contrairement aux pays musulmans. [130] The office of Prime Minister has been abolished and its powers (together with those of the Cabinet) have been transferred to the President, who is the head of state and is elected for a five-year term by direct elections. Hors du champs religieux : La Franc-maçonerie On 26 June 1945, Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa, which was the capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1413. [520] As of December 2016, at least 81 journalists were imprisoned in Turkey and more than 100 news outlets were closed. It became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. Despite this however, western music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 1970s and 1980s. Other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government instead of the mayors (belediye başkanı) or elected by constituents. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. The Osman Gazi Bridge (2016) connects the northern and southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians.[73]. [364] Non-Kurdish minorities are believed to make up an estimated 7–12 percent of the population. L’islam sunnite In 1514, Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) successfully expanded the empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 2018–19 EuroLeague and the 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup, and finished third at the 1999–2000 EuroLeague and the 2000–01 SuproLeague. During the years of chaos and war, the Darülbedayi-i Osmani continued its activities and attracted the younger generation. [218][219] Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to the country's membership of the EU. [513][514] By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk. [259] Southeastern Turkey is located within the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia. Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays. Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization. Dans le dessein de lutter contre le progrès des idées de gauche, le gouvernement militaire a misé sur les islamistes. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use constitute a vibrant media industry in Turkey. [374], Before the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the estimated number of Arabs in Turkey varied from 1 million to more than 2 million. Turkish directors like Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Yılmaz Güney and Ferzan Özpetek won numerous international awards such as the Palme d'Or and Golden Bear. Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe. Intermittent supply, which was common in many cities, has become less frequent. [340], Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges. The instructions for several ebru techniques in the text are accredited to this master. [360][361] The exact figure remains a subject of dispute; according to Servet Mutlu, "more often than not, these estimates reflect pro-Kurdish or pro-Turkish sympathies and attitudes rather than scientific facts or erudition". H. Davison, Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774-1923 – The Impact of West, Texas 1990, pp. [88], Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President and subsequently introduced many reforms. [473] Internationally acclaimed Turkish musicians of Western classical music include pianists İdil Biret, Verda Erman, Gülsin Onay, the Pekinel sisters (Güher and Süher Pekinel), Ayşegül Sarıca and Fazıl Say; violinists Ayla Erduran and Suna Kan; opera singers Semiha Berksoy, Leyla Gencer and Güneş Gürle; and conductors Emre Aracı, Gürer Aykal, Erol Erdinç, Rengim Gökmen and Hikmet Şimşek. [401] However, AKP policies have also caused an increase in interest and support for secularism in Turkey. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km². Notable players, directors and playwrights of Turkish theatre include Muhsin Ertuğrul, Haldun Taner, Aziz Nesin, Gülriz Sururi, Yıldız Kenter, Müşfik Kenter, Haldun Dormen, Sadri Alışık, Çolpan İlhan, Münir Özkul, Adile Naşit, Erol Günaydın, Gazanfer Özcan, Nejat Uygur, Genco Erkal, Metin Serezli, Nevra Serezli, Levent Kırca, Zeki Alasya, Metin Akpınar, Müjdat Gezen, Ferhan Şensoy, among others. [478] The leading architects of this movement were Vedat Tek (1873–1942), Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870–1927), Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888–1982) and Giulio Mongeri (1873–1953). Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Nâmık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh (Awakening), while the journalist Şinasi has written, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage). As a result, an estimated 800,000 to 1,500,000 Armenians were killed. [a][23] After the Ottomans and the other Central Powers lost the war, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Études Kurdes n° 3 : un numéro de la revue consacré principalement aux alévis de Turquie [455] Known as Universal Health Insurance Genel Sağlık Sigortası, it is funded by a tax surcharge on employers, currently at 5%. [311] The public debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 75.9 percent during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 26.9 percent by 2013.[312]. Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. [333], Turkey's internet, which has 42.3 million active users, holds a 'Not Free' ranking in Freedom House's index. La Turquie fait l'expérience, depuis 1924, d'une laïcité dans le contexte d'un pays de culture essentiellement musulmane sunnite. [491], Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. La hiérarchie religieuse intégrée dans la bureaucratie ottomane a disparu avec l’ancien empire. [502] Women's volleyball clubs, namely Fenerbahçe, Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank, have won numerous European championship titles and medals. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralised state. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire. [274] In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, more illustrations than standalone works of art.

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