Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, and only failed by less than 1%. (Newfoundland premier Clyde Wells had expressed his opposition to the accord, but, with the failure in Manitoba, the vote for or against Meech never took place in his province.) [45] From temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Northern Lights and midnight sun. The forest industry has slowed in recent years because of the softwood lumber dispute. [226] The Artis and the Gemini Awards gala recognize the personalities of television and radio industry in Quebec and French Canada. Many other substances are extracted including titanium, asbestos, silver, magnesium, nickel and many other metals and industrial minerals. [140] In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006 only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages. These lands include Gatineau Park, LeBreton Flats, the National Capital Greenbelt in Ottawa, and many parks and driveways along the region’s waterways in both Ontario and Quebec. In that year, the Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was renamed the National Assembly. [238] These sites were designated as being of national historic significance.[239]. The conservative government of Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale dominated Quebec politics from 1944 to 1959 with the support of the Catholic Church. Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. [168] This industry employs 68,000 people in several regions of Quebec. Carrefour Chrétien de la Capitale, Quebec. [1] In 2013, Statistics Canada estimated the province's population to be 8,155,334. Its access to the Atlantic Ocean and the interior of North America made it the base of early French exploration and settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries. However, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. Other notable rivers include the Ashuapmushuan, Chaudière, Gatineau, Manicouagan, Ottawa, Richelieu, Rupert, Saguenay, Saint-François, and Saint-Maurice. Around 1522–1523, the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano persuaded King Francis I of France to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay (China). One of the oldest cities in Canada—having celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2008—Quebec city has a distinct old-world character and charm. The act also allowed the French speakers, known as Canadiens, to maintain French civil law and sanctioned freedom of religion, allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain, one of the first cases in history of state-sanctioned freedom of religious practice. Beginning in 1963, a paramilitary group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade-long programme of propaganda and terrorism that included bombings, robberies and attacks[105] directed primarily at English institutions, resulting in at least five deaths. [13] Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. The flag in its present form with its 4 white "fleur-de-lis" lilies on a blue background with a white cross replaced the Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building on January 21, 1948. Most of the first cheeses were soft cheeses, but after the Conquest of New France, hard cheese began to be created as well. (Figures shown are for single-language responses only. [40] Southern and western Quebec, including most of the major population centres and areas south of 51oN, have a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with four distinct seasons having warm to occasionally hot and humid summers and often very cold and snowy winters. [127] A 2014 report by the Fraser Institute indicated that "Relative to its size, Quebec is the most indebted province in Canada by a wide margin".[128]. [200] Other organizations, such as the Canadian Coast Guard and Nav Canada, provide the same service for the sea and air transportation. Quebec has produced cheese for centuries. [198] William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill University in Montreal. Since 2007, the government promotes, with the various players in the field, the conclusion of agreements on the use of property belonging to episcopal factories and corporations to establish "partnerships in financing the restoration and renovation of religious buildings". Often known as Bill 101, it defined French as the only official language of Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction.[107]. It is rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a mainstay of the Quebec economy. [11] It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole official language. [40][41] The main climatic influences are from western and northern Canada and move eastward, and from the southern and central United States that move northward. Quebec (/k(w)ɪˈbɛk/ (listen);[9] French: Québec [kebɛk] (listen))[10] is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization especially with the emergence of spruce beer. Quebec is in eastern Canada. [35] The most populous physiographic region is the Saint Lawrence Lowland. Development and security of land transportation in Canada are provided by the ministère des Transports du Québec. [183] Overall, the province of Quebec count about 125 scientific publications per 100,000 inhabitants in 2009. Furthermore, Quebec is a free and democratic society that abides by the rule of law. [18] The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province"). Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario. Linguistic map of the province of Quebec (source: Statistics Canada, 2006 census): Indigenous peoples and European exploration, Seven Years' War and capitulation of New France. Historically June 24 was a holiday honouring French Canada's patron saint, St. John the Baptist, which is why it is commonly known as La Saint-Jean-Baptiste (often shortened to La St-Jean). Approximately 12 900 people working in over 110 companies such as IBM, CMC, and Matrox. More than 95% of Quebec's territory lies within the Canadian Shield. IVC Telecom is an ISP originating from Montreal. It has a land area of 18,797.45 km2. La montagne russe Electro (précédemment Capitale Express) est située dans les Galeries de la capitale, à Québec. [242], In 1939, the government of Quebec unilaterally ratified its coat of arms to reflect Quebec's political history: French rule (gold lily on blue background), British rule (lion on red background) and Canadian rule (maple leaves) and with Quebec's motto below "Je me souviens". Among the Nordic marine animals, there are two particularly important to cite: the walrus and the narwhal. Location of the Province of Quebec . The Cinémathèque québécoise has a mandate to promote the film and television heritage of Quebec. In 1758, the British mounted an attack on New France by sea and took the French fort at Louisbourg. [114] On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. In Quebec, about 42.6 percent of the population (3,328,725 people) report knowing both languages; this is the highest proportion of bilinguals of any Canadian province. In April 2012, plans were unveiled for the construction of an 800 km (497 mi) railway running north from Sept-Îles, to support mining and other resource extraction in the Labrador Trough. These areas, listed in order from the northernmost to the southernmost are: the tundra, the taiga, the Canadian boreal forest (coniferous), mixed forest and Deciduous forest.[39]. The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government. [221] While the Association of Producers and Directors of Quebec (APDQ) represents the business of filmmaking and television, the Association of Community Radio Broadcasters of Quebec (ARCQ) (French acronym) represents the independent radio stations. Venez nous visiter ! In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24 to be Quebec's National Holiday. [202], Concerning rail transport, Quebec has 6,678 kilometres (4,150 mi) of railways[203] integrated in the large North American network. It would have been ironic if we visit the capital city and didn't visit the parliament building. Montreal's cabarets rose to the forefront of the city's cultural life during the Prohibition era of Canada and the United States in the 1920s. [167] The forest products industry ranks second in exports, with shipments valued at almost $11 billion. In addition, 152,820 (2.0%) reported having more than one native language.[138]. [187][188][189], The province is one of the world leaders in the field of space science and contributed to important discoveries in this field. As part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. Quebec nationalism has been one expression of this perspective. In the waters of the St. Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports for the transhipment of goods. It has many similarities with Acadian cuisine. Biodiversity of the estuary and gulf of Saint Lawrence River[54] consists of an aquatic mammal wildlife, of which most goes upriver through the estuary and the Saguenay–St. [222] Several movie theatres across Quebec ensure the dissemination of Quebec cinema. Quebec accounts for 24% of Canada's total population. Nearly 9% of the population of Quebec belongs to a visible minority group. [149] In June 2017 S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. The situation called for a more creative approach to problem solving. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec is making investments totalling $127 million to two new funds formed by iNovia Capital, a Quebec venture capital firm. Excluding administrative units reserved for Aboriginal lands, the primary types of subdivision are: In the 2016 census, Quebec had a population of 8,164,361 living in 3,531,663 of its 3,858,943 total dwellings, a 3.3% change from its 2011 population of 7,903,001. [70] These people traded fur and food and sometimes warred with each other. [74] In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. [218] The First Nations and the Inuit of Quebec also have their own traditional music. Prior attempts to amend the Canadian constitution to acknowledge Quebec as a "distinct society" – referring to the province's uniqueness within Canada regarding law, language, and culture – have been unsuccessful; however, the federal government under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien would later endorse recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. Sixty percent of the Quebec electorate voted against the proposition for sovereignty-association. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. [106] Laporte was strangled with his own rosary beads a few days later. Although Quebec is home to only 24% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. [24] Each became one of the first four provinces. The four calendar seasons in Quebec are spring, summer, autumn and winter, with conditions differing by region. Bergeron, Léandre and Pierre Landry (2008). [160] Quebec is one of North America's leading high-tech player. [27], Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of which is very sparsely populated. For its part, Tohu, la Cité des Arts du Cirque was founded in 2004 to disseminate the circus arts.[234]. Trudeau advocated the patriation of Canada's Constitution from the United Kingdom. By 1903, the parent of today's flag had taken shape, known as the "Fleurdelisé". [172] It also stands for the exploitation of its forest resources. [29], Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water,[30] occupying 12% of its surface. The traditional Quebecois cuisine descends from 16th century French cuisine, the fur trade and a history of hunting. Caisse DE Depot ET Placement DU Quebec trimmed its stake in Annaly Capital Management, Inc. (NYSE:NLY) by 5.2% during the third quarter, Holdings reports. If your business is looking to expand and you need more than $5 million for your project, Investissement Québec can provide development capital or a loan of up to $100 million, depending on the nature of your project. [162], About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology. The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5 percent) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9 percent), 27,985 Métis (0.4 percent), and 10,950 Inuit (0.15 percent). While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace, information and communication technologies, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. The first cheese-making school in North America was established in Saint-Denis-de-Kamouraska in 1893. The Ottawa River runs through the region, as well as long sections of the Gatineau and Rideaurivers. [39] The Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and most abundant of the three forest areas in Quebec that straddle the Canadian Shield and the upper lowlands of the province. The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to settlement patterns in 17th century New France. In a similar way, the Association of Film and Television in Quebec (APFTQ) promotes independent production in film and television. It is an official part of the coat of arms and has been the official licence plate motto since 1978, replacing "La belle province" (the beautiful province). In 2003, 3886 cargo and 9.7 million tonnes of goods transited the Quebec portion of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Only 2.5 hrs by car from Montreal or 1.5 hr flight from New York or Toronto. "Place Names". 312", "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2011 and 2006 censuses", "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory", "Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables", "Dette: le Québec, cancre d'une classe surdouée", "Quebec credit rating surpasses Ontario for first time ever", "L'expertise québécoise en haute technologie", "L'économie du savoir en mutation au Québec", "The Benefits of Investing in Québec Research & Development", "Les raisons d'une implantation multiple dans un pays clé de l'aéronautique mondial", "Stratégie de développement de l'industrie aéronautique québécoise", "Québec veut investir 2 milliards pour stimuler l'économie", "Investir en TIC, innovation et créativité | Investissement Québec", "Industrie minière et substances exploitées", "Encore "dix ans difficiles" pour l'industrie forestière", "Le Québec est le chouchou de l'industrie minière", "Industrie minière: valeur des expéditions, selon les principales substances minérales, Québec", "Le Québec chiffres en main, édition 2009 – Végétation", "Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) 2010–2013", "Comparaisons économiques internationales", "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus", "Science and Technology: Portal of the government of Québec", "Québec had 195 triadic inventions patented", "ombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie par 100,000 habitants, provinces et territoires, 1980 à 2009", "Nombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie, Québec, Ontario, pays du G8, pays nordiques, certains pays émergents et monde, et part dans le total mondial, 1980 à 2009", "Les publications scientifiques québécoises de 1991 à 2000", "A fourth planet around the star HR 8799", "La NASA acquiert une caméra conçue à l'UdeM", "Québec Science remet le Prix du public Découverte de l'année 2009 à un chercheur d'étoiles", "Un oeil de lynx pour la NASA grâce à un Lévisien", "La recherche et le développement au Québec", "Railway Gazette: Railway could tap Québec's northern wealth", "The Route verte puts all of Quebec within reach of your handlebars! In 1534, Breton explorer Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I. A number of governmental and non-government organizations support cultural activity in Quebec. [109] Polls showed that the overwhelming majority of English and immigrant Quebecers voted against, and that French Quebecers were almost equally divided, with older voters less in favour and younger voters more in favour. [21] After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. The negotiations quickly reached a stand-still. The debate over the status of Quebec is a highly animated one to this day. However, the accented forms are increasingly evident in some publications. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Quebec, QC. Quebec has more than 450 biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies which together employ more than 25,000 people and 10,000 highly qualified researchers. In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors. Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be found in Quebec. An additional 5.8 percent of the population said they had no religious affiliation (including 5.6 percent who stated that they had no religion at all).Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580)[137], The official language of Quebec is French. Constituting nearly one-sixth of Canada’s total land area, Quebec is the largest of Canada’s 10 provinces in area and is second only to Ontario in population. An unprepared British Army had to raise militia force; the rebel forces scored a victory in Saint-Denis but were soon defeated. [185] Between 1991 to 2000, Quebec produced more scientific papers per 100,000 inhabitants than the United States and Germany. However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1. It is inspired in part by the French Legion of Honour. French settlers populating North America were interested in a new cuisine to confront the climate and the needs arising from the work of colonization. Located in the heart of downtown Québec City, a stone’s throw from the Porte Saint-Jean, Le Capitole is the preferred destination for both businesspeople and tourists in search of a distinctive VIP experience. It's definitely worth the visit for the architecture and the history associated with this place. 087; November 27, 2006", "Debate: The motions on the Québécois nation", "Revenu Québec - Basic Rules for Applying the GST/HST and QST", "Consolidated provincial and territorial government revenue and expenditures, by province and territory, 2009", "Quebec business taxes highest in North America", "Quebec's debt 'worryingly high', report says", "Population urban and rural, by province and territory", "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data", "Canada's total population estimates, 2013", "Les Québécoises conservent un taux de fécondité supérieur au reste du Canada", "Le Québec franchit le cap des 8 millions d'habitants", "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data", "Visible minority groups, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data", "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables", "Selected Religions, for Canada, Provinces and Territories", "Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census – Province of Quebec", "Att. They appear to have been later supplanted by the Mohawk nation. The Wildlife Foundation of Quebec and the Data Centre on Natural Heritage of Quebec (CDPNQ)(French acronym)[63] are the main agencies working with officers for wildlife conservation in Quebec. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. The Canadian boreal forest covers 27% of the area of Quebec. By 1758 at the Battle of Carillon, the Flag of Carillon would become the basis of Quebec's desire to have its own flag. Ice hockey remains the national sport. Approximately 60% of the production of the Canadian aerospace industry are from Quebec, where sales totalled C$12.4 billion in 2009. Thus, the development of Quebec masterpieces in painting, printmaking and sculpture is marked by the contribution of artists such as Louis-Philippe Hébert, Cornelius Krieghoff, Alfred Laliberté, Marc-Aurèle Fortin, Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté, Jean Paul Lemieux, Clarence Gagnon, Adrien Dufresne, Alfred Pellan, Jean-Philippe Dallaire, Charles Daudelin, Arthur Villeneuve, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Paul-Émile Borduas and Marcelle Ferron. Although primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such as the Canadian National (CN) and the Canadian Pacific (CP), the Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via Rail Canada and Amtrak. The tundra covers more than 24% of the area of Quebec. In cities like Québec and Montréal, great shows are organized in the main public places (such as the Abraham plains, Québec, or Maisonneuve Park, Montréal) where several of the most popular Quebec artists relay each others[clarification needed] until late at night. Currently, the song Gens du pays is by far preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. [243] Je me souviens ("I remember") was first carved under the coat of arms of Quebec's Parliament Building façade in 1883. The Premier's press release[212] reasserted the three fundamental values of Quebec society: Equality between men and women, primacy of the French language, and separation of church and state constitute the fundamental values. British reinforcements came up the St. Lawrence in May 1776, and the Battle of Trois-Rivières turned into a disaster for the Americans. [39] It is generally a quite flat and exposed mountainous terrain interspersed with higher points such as the Laurentian Mountains in southern Quebec, the Otish Mountains in central Quebec and the Torngat Mountains near Ungava Bay. Cities in Quebec. ), Following were Creoles (0.8%), Chinese (0.6%), Greek (0.5%), Portuguese (0.5%), Romanian (0.4%), Vietnamese (0.3%), and Russian (0.3%). The provincial debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 50.7% in fiscal year 2012–2013, and is projected to decline to 33.8% in 2023–2024. The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada[19] to Britain after the Seven Years' War. It includes such works as The Old Canadians, Maria Chapdelaine, Un homme et son péché, Le Survenant, etc. Coureurs des bois, voyageurs and Catholic missionaries used river canoes to explore the interior of the North American continent. The large land wildlife is mainly composed of the white-tailed deer, the moose, the muskox, the caribou (reindeer), the American black bear and the polar bear. [57] Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess. In between, it covers in Quebec near 800 km (497 mi), from the Montérégie hills to the Gaspé Peninsula. Precipitation is also somewhat less than farther south, except at some of the higher elevations. Quebec, French Québec, eastern province of Canada. Site Internet informatif spécialisé dans la musique métal. Its capital is Quebec City, which is located in the southeastern portion of the province, along the St. Lawrence River. In fact, you might be able to guess the capital of Quebec, but you should probably study for this quiz to get the capital of Prince Edward Island or Saskatchewan. Fiscal measures. The taiga covers about 20% of the total area of Quebec. While many works decorate the public areas of Quebec, others are displayed in foreign countries such as the sculpture Embâcle (Jam) by Charles Daudelin on Québec Place in Paris and the statue Québec Libre! Le Ballet de Québec, and theOpéra de Québec. [182] Quebec is also active in the development of its energy industries, including renewable energy such as hydropower and wind power. Many more species of land, maritime or avian wildlife are seen in Quebec, but most of the Quebec-specific species and the most commonly seen species are listed above. [173] However, only 40% of the mineral potential of Quebec is currently known. In 1970, their activities culminated in events referred to as the October Crisis when James Cross, the British trade commissioner to Canada, was kidnapped along with Pierre Laporte, a provincial minister and Vice-Premier. [60] Livestock production also includes the pig breeds Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire[61] and many breeds of sheep[62] and cattle.