Thus, each Arabic keyboard has both Arabic and Roman characters marked on the keys. The system was finalized around 786 by al-Farāhīdī. Indo-Arabs are people with Arab origins who have over a long period of time, settled in the Indian Subcontinent. While some letters show considerable variations, others remain almost identical across all four positions. Usually the Roman characters of an Arabic keyboard conform to the QWERTY layout, but in North Africa, where French is the most common language typed using the Roman characters, the Arabic keyboards are AZERTY. All Arabic vowels, long and short, follow a consonant; in Arabic, words like "Ali" or "alif", for example, start with a consonant: ‘Aliyy, alif. The diacritic only appears where the consonant at the end of one syllable is identical to the initial consonant of the following syllable. [citation needed], Because MSA speech occurs in fields with novel concepts, including technical literature and scientific domains, the need for terms that did not exist in the time of CA has led to coining new terms. e.g. This is sometimes used to produce chronograms. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor The following are not individual letters, but rather different contextual variants of some of the Arabic letters. 3. ... Why is New York University better than United Arab Emirates University? The first surviving document that definitely uses these dots is also the first surviving Arabic papyrus (PERF 558), dated April 643, although they did not become obligatory until much later. [citation needed] However, the epigraphic record is extremely sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions surviving, though some others may be pre-Islamic. Again, the issue is not Sunni vs Shi'a or Arab vs Persian, but shared interests. It was the lingua franca across the Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa during classic times and in Andalusia before classic times. Yale University [citation needed] Additionally, some members of religious minorities recite prayers in it, as it is considered the literary language. In the Arabic handwriting of everyday use, in general publications, and on street signs, short vowels are typically not written. It differs significantly from many vernacular varieties of Arabic that are commonly spoken as mother tongues in the area; these are only partially mutually intelligible with both MSA and with each other depending on their proximity in the Arabic dialect continuum. In 1514, following Gutenberg's invention of the printing press in 1450, Gregorio de Gregorii, a Venetian, published an entire prayer-book in Arabic script; it was entitled Kitab Salat al-Sawa'i and was intended for eastern Christian communities. "Classical Arabic,", harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFWatson2002 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria, Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu, Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartoum, Arab League § Literacy in Arab league countries, "The Arabic Language: A Latin of Modernity? Results Service. French: arabe standard moderne m, fous-ha f German: Standardarabisch n , Fusha f , Modernes Hocharabisch (de) n , modernes Hocharabisch (de) n Japanese: 標準アラビア語 ( ひょうじゅんあらびあご, hyōjun Arabia-go ) , フスハー (ja) ( Fusuhā ) , 現代標準アラビア語 ( gendai hyōjun Arabia-go ) [citation needed], Napoleon's campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) is generally considered to be the starting point of the modern period of the Arabic language, when the intensity of contacts between the Western world and Arabic culture increased. There is one compulsory ligature, that for lām ل + alif ا, which exists in two forms. Live Coverage of Bani Yas vs Khorfakkan Friday, October 30, 2020 on MSN Sport In the fully vocalized Arabic text found in texts such as Quran, a long ā following a consonant other than a hamzah is written with a short a sign (fatḥah) on the consonant plus an ʾalif after it; long ī is written as a sign for short i (kasrah) plus a yāʾ; and long ū as a sign for short u (ḍammah) plus a wāw. used in final position only and for denoting the feminine noun/word or to make the noun/word feminine; however, in rare irregular noun/word cases, it appears to denote the "masculine"; In most of present-day North Africa, the usual Western Arabic numerals are used. Because Arabic script is used to write other texts rather than Koran only, rendering lām + lām + hā’ as the previous ligature is considered faulty:[6] If one of a number of fonts (Noto Naskh Arabic, mry_KacstQurn, KacstOne, DejaVu Sans, Harmattan, Scheherazade, Lateef, Iranian Sans) is installed on a computer (Iranian Sans is supported by Wikimedia web-fonts), the word will appear without diacritics. the realization of the Classical jīm ج as [ɡ] by Egyptians), though other traits may show the speaker's region, such as the stress and the exact value of vowels and the pronunciation of other consonants. Football Soccer Match Costa del Este vs Arabe Unido Result and Live Scores Details. [citation needed], MSA is loosely uniform across the Middle East as it is based on the convention of Arabic speakers rather than being a regulated language which rules are followed (that is despite the number of academies regulating Arabic). The Arabic alphabet (Arabic: الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة ‎, al-abjadīyah l-ʿarabīyah or الْحُرُوف الْعَرَبِيَّة, al-ḥurūf l-ʿarabīyah, IPA: [ʔalʔabd͡ʒadiːjaʰ lʕarabiːjaʰ]), or Arabic abjad, is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.It is written from right to left in a cursive style and includes 28 letters. The first documents written in a language with some features specific of modern Spanish are ascribed to a number of documents from different monasteries in the area of Burgos and La Rioja in what is now northern Spain. Some examples include reliance on verb sentences[clarification needed] instead of noun phrases and semi-sentences, as well as avoiding phrasal adjectives and accommodating feminine forms of ranks and job titles. Used in Israel, for example on road signs. The exception is the suffix ـوا۟ in verb endings where ʾalif is silent, resulting in ū or aw. While there are differences between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, Arabic speakers tend to find these differences unimportant, and generally refer to both by the same name: al-ʻArabīyah al-Fuṣḥā ('the pure Arabic'). Live Coverage of Al Nasr vs Al Ain Friday, December 18, 2020 on MSN Sport La Mujer en la Cultura Árabe: Formación Versus Exclusión. By Bernardo Ruiz Delgado and Pedro Gallardo Vázquez Publisher: Sociedad Iberoamericana de Pedagogía Social. The first known text in the Arabic alphabet is a late 4th-century inscription from Jabal Ramm (50 km east of ‘Aqabah) in Jordan, but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed in Syria from 512. [14] MSA also has taken on some punctuation marking from other languages. This article contains major sections of text from the very detailed article Arabic alphabet from the French Wikipedia, which has been partially translated into English. In addition, some letter combinations are written as ligatures (special shapes), notably lām-alif لا,[3] which is the only mandatory ligature (the un-ligated combination لـا is considered difficult to read). MSA differs most markedly in that it either synthesizes words from Arabic roots (such as سيارة car or باخرة steamship) or adapts words from European languages (such as ورشة workshop or إنترنت Internet) to describe industrial and post-industrial life. The Arabic Presentation Forms-A range encodes contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages. The use of ligature in Arabic is common. singular nouns: /a/, plural nouns: āt (a preceding letter followed by a fatḥah alif + tāʾ = .mw-parser-output .script-arabic,.mw-parser-output .script-Arab{font-family:Scheherazade,Lateef,LateefGR,Amiri,"Noto Naskh Arabic","Droid Arabic Naskh",Harmattan,"Arabic Typesetting","Traditional Arabic","Simplified Arabic","Times New Roman",Arial,"Sakkal Majalla","Microsoft Uighur",Calibri,"Microsoft Sans Serif","Segoe UI",serif,sans-serif;font-weight:normal}ـَات‎). If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF ISOLATED FORM: Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B U+FExx range a code for this ligature. That is the current recommendation. 2. the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫ.ɫaːh/ ('The God') and words derived from it.[13]. There may be sounds used, which are missing in the Classical Arabic but may exist in colloquial varieties - consonants - /v/, /p/, /t͡ʃ/ (often realized as [t]+[ʃ]), these consonants may or may not be written with special letters; and vowels - [o], [e] (both short and long), there are no special letters in Arabic to distinguish between [e~i] and [o~u] pairs but the sounds o and e (short and long) exist in the colloquial varieties of Arabic and some foreign words in MSA. It is written from right to left in a cursive style and includes 28 letters. For more information about encoding Arabic, consult the Unicode manual available at, Arabic script § Additional letters used in other languages. [12], Between 1580 and 1586, type designer Robert Granjon designed Arabic typefaces for Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici, and the Medici press published many Christian prayer and scholarly Arabic texts in the late 16th century.[13]. The Arabic alphabet is considered an abjad, meaning it only uses consonants, but it is now considered an "impure abjad". Gemination is the doubling of a consonant. The Persian word ماسک (mâsk, from the English word "mask"), for example, might be written with a sukūn above the ﺱ to signify that there is no vowel sound between that letter and the ک. The hijāʾī order is never used as numerals. It was used by medieval Arab geographers and astronomers. Other ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional. [7] Napoleon introduced the first Arabic printing press in Egypt in 1798; it briefly disappeared after the French departure in 1801, but Muhammad Ali Pasha, who also sent students to Italy, France and England to study military and applied sciences in 1809, reintroduced it a few years later in Boulaq, Cairo. The table below shows vowels placed above or below a dotted circle replacing a primary consonant letter or a shaddah sign. 1997. Modern Standard Arabic is also spoken by people of Arab descent outside the Arab world when people of Arab descent speaking different dialects communicate to each other. Distribution of Modern Standard Arabic as an official language in the Arab World. The Arab region has witnessed a large wave of armed conflicts and population displacement in recent years, believed to have bought with it an upsurge of child labour – the magnitude of which is yet to be fully measured. [citation needed], Pronunciation of native words, loanwords, foreign names in MSA is loose, names can be pronounced or even spelled differently in different regions and by different speakers. [7] (Previously, Arabic-language presses had been introduced locally in Lebanon in 1610 , and in Aleppo, Syria in 1702[7]). People who are literate in the language are usually more so passively, as they mostly use the language in reading and writing, not in speaking. It is important to note that written Classical Arabic underwent fundamental changes during the early Islamic era, adding dots to distinguish similarly written letters, and adding the tashkīl (diacritical markings that guide pronunciation) by Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi, and other scholars. [7], Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the literary standard across the Middle East, North Africa and Horn of Africa, and is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Home > University comparison > New York University vs United Arab Emirates University. [citation needed], Regional variations exist due to influence from the spoken vernaculars. United Arab Emirates University. Translated versions of the Bible which are used in Arabic-speaking countries are mostly written in MSA, aside from Classical Arabic. It can be thought of as being in a continuum between CA (the regulated language described in grammar books) and the spoken vernaculars while leaning much more to CA in its written form than its spoken form. For example, the Arabic letters ب (b), ت (t) and ث (th) have the same basic shape, but have one dot below, two dots above and three dots above, respectively. See also the notes of the section on modified letters. Football Soccer Match Arab Contractors vs AS Arta Result and Live Scores Details. Modern dictionaries and other reference books do not use the abjadī order to sort alphabetically; instead, the newer hijāʾī order is used wherein letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape. Modern Standard Arabic, like Classical Arabic before it, has three pairs of long and short vowels: /a/, /i/, and /u/: * Footnote: although not part of Standard Arabic phonology the vowels /eː/ and /oː/ are perceived as separate phonemes in most of modern Arabic dialects and they are occasionally used when speaking Modern Standard Arabic as part of foreign words or when speaking it with a colloquial tone. An Arabic sentence can have a completely different meaning by a subtle change of the vowels. [16][17], There are competing online tools, e.g. 18 points. This is why in an important text such as the Qur’ān the three basic vowel signs (see below) are mandated, like the ḥarakāt and all the other diacritics or other types of marks, for example the cantillation signs. (The Aramaic language had fewer phonemes than the Arabic, and some originally distinct Aramaic letters had become indistinguishable in shape, so that in the early writings 15 distinct letter-shapes had to do duty for 28 sounds; cf. Burj Al Arab. However, this was cumbersome and easily confusable with the letter-distinguishing dots, so about 100 years later, the modern system was adopted. en. This is one step down from full vocalization, where the vowel after the q would also be indicated by a fatḥah: قَلْب. The undotted version has been the traditional way of writing the letter ي yāʾ in the final position, and it remains to be used in the Nile Valley region. 79 points. Read the latest in UAE news, Gulf news, world news, sports like cricket and football, weather, money, celebrity, travel and health. [1] As with other impure abjads, such as the Hebrew alphabet, scribes later devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel diacritics. There has been extensive trade and cultural links between India and the Arab world spanning several centuries. Nunation (Arabic: تنوين‎ tanwīn) is the addition of a final -n  to a noun or adjective. People speak MSA as a third language if they speak other languages native to a country as their first language and colloquial Arabic dialects as their second language. The Arabic Presentation Forms-B range encodes spacing forms of Arabic diacritics, and more contextual letter forms. It also includes the most common diacritics and Arabic-Indic digits. Football Soccer Match United Arab Emirates vs Bahrain Result and Live Scores Details. Differences between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic. The first Arabic printed newspaper was established in 1828: the bilingual Turkish-Arabic Al-Waqa'i' al-Misriyya had great influence in the formation of Modern Standard Arabic. [6], Classical Arabic, also known as Quranic Arabic (although the term is not entirely accurate), is the language used in the Quran as well as in numerous literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). The following are examples: Modern Standard Arabic is not commonly taught as a native language in the, Wolfdietrich Fischer. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one: Another ligature in the Unicode Presentation Form A range U+FB50 to U+FDxx is the special code for glyph for the ligature Allāh ("God"), U+FDF2 ARABIC LIGATURE ALLAH ISOLATED FORM: This is a work-around for the shortcomings of most text processors, which are incapable of displaying the correct vowel marks for the word Allāh in Koran. [citation needed], MSA tends to use simplified sentence structures and drop more complicated ones commonly used in Classical Arabic. Use the table of primary letters to look at their actual glyph and joining types. Users of Arabic usually write long vowels but omit short ones, so readers must utilize their knowledge of the language in order to supply the missing vowels. It is compulsory in schools of most of the Arab League to learn Modern Standard Arabic. Later still, vowel marks and the hamzah were introduced, beginning some time in the latter half of the 7th century, preceding the first invention of Syriac and Hebrew vocalization. [citation needed]. In addition, the Arabic alphabet can be used to represent numbers (Abjad numerals). Children's books, elementary school texts, and Arabic-language grammars in general will include diacritics to some degree. The original ʾabjadīy order (أَبْجَدِيّ), used for lettering, derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet, and is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the Hebrew alphabet. Overview Details + Add to comparison. [citation needed], The Egyptian writer and journalist, Cherif Choubachy wrote in a critical book, that more than half of the Arabic speaking world are not Arabs and that more than 50% of Arabs in the Arabic speaking world use Literary Arabic.[15]. Can be substituted with, Used in loanwords and dialectal words instead of, Sometimes used when transliterating foreign names and loanwords and in the. Versús Escúela Árabe Siria is on Facebook. This usage is based on the ʾabjadī order of the alphabet. This situation is similar to Romance languages, wherein scores of words were borrowed directly from formal Latin (most literate Romance speakers were also literate in Latin); educated speakers of standard colloquial dialects speak in this kind of communication. People who are literate in Modern Standard Arabic are primarily found in most countries of the Arab League. It depends on the speaker's knowledge and attitude to the grammar of Classical Arabic, as well as the region and the intended audience. A more complex ligature that combines as many as seven distinct components is commonly used to represent the word Allāh. In this order, letters are also used as numbers, Abjad numerals, and possess the same alphanumeric code/cipher as Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy. #taurofc #somoslasele #marearoja Suscríbete y Activa la campanita para que NO te pierdas ningúno de tus eventos deportivos favoritos [5] MSA is a pluricentric standard language taught throughout the Arab world in formal education. A list of Arabic ligature forms in Unicode. They are not normally written, although a certain amount of literature (particularly plays and poetry, including songs) exists in many of them. Initially, this was done by a system of red dots, said to have been commissioned in the Umayyad era by Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali a dot above = a, a dot below = i, a dot on the line = u, and doubled dots indicated nunation. The differentiation of pronunciation of informal dialects is the influence from other languages previously spoken and some still presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, French, Ottoman Turkish, Italian, Spanish, Berber, Punic or Phoenician in North Africa, Himyaritic, Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian in Yemen and Aramaic in the Levant. [9] For these reasons, Modern Standard Arabic is generally treated separately in non-Arab sources. Differences can include the location of non-alphabetic characters. The Arabic Mathematical Alphabetical Symbols block encodes characters used in Arabic mathematical expressions. For the classical language, see, Standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech. Most printed material by the Arab League—including most books, newspapers, magazines, official documents, and reading primers for small children—is written in MSA. [clarification needed] Muslims recite prayers in it; revised editions of numerous literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times are also written in MSA. All Arabic keyboards allow typing Roman characters, e.g., for the URL in a web browser. He personally cut the type molds and did the founding of the typeface. Generally, letters in the same word are linked together on both sides by short horizontal lines, but six letters (و ,ز ,ر ,ذ ,د ,ا) can only be linked to their preceding letter. Each letter has a position-independent encoding in Unicode, and the rendering software can infer the correct glyph form (initial, medial, final or isolated) from its joining context. ("guttural" h, may be approximated as heart), (can be approximated with sauce, but with the throat constricted), (can be approximated with dawn, but with the throat constricted), (can be approximated with stall, but with the throat constricted), (can be approximated with father, but with the throat constricted), ("guttural" voiced h; similar to ḥāʾ above), (similar to caught, but pronounced further back in the mouth. The basic Arabic alphabet contains 28 letters. The range Arabic presentation forms A (U+FB50 to U+FDFF) contain ligatures while the range Arabic presentation forms B (U+FE70 to U+FEFF) contains the positional variants. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. [11] Add to this regional differences in vocabulary depending upon the influence of the local Arabic varieties and the influences of foreign languages, such as French in Africa and Lebanon or English in Egypt, Jordan, and other countries. But if a sukūn is added on the y then the m cannot have a sukūn (because two letters in a row cannot be sukūnated), cannot have a ḍammah (because there is never an uy sound in Arabic unless there is another vowel after the y), and cannot have a kasrah (because kasrah before sukūnated y is never found outside the Qur’ān), so it must have a fatḥah and the only possible pronunciation is /majl/ (meaning mile, or even e-mail). There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms. Short vowels may be written with diacritics placed above or below the consonant that precedes them in the syllable, called ḥarakāt. As of Unicode 13.0, the Arabic script is contained in the following blocks:[15]. The Arab League was created decades before the Creation of the European Union, yet the European states have played a big role in its organization. The prototype enables the user to write Arabic words by hand on an electronic screen, which then analyzes the text and translates it into printed Arabic letters in a thousandth of a second. أ ʾalif is 1, ب bāʾ is 2, ج jīm is 3, and so on until ي yāʾ = 10, ك kāf = 20, ل lām = 30, ..., ر rāʾ = 200, ..., غ ghayn = 1000. It is the language used in academia, print and mass media, law and legislation, though it is generally not spoken as a mother tongue, like Classical Latin or Soutenu French. These dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. when it was replaced by the Mashriqi order.[2]. [7] It was followed by Al-Ahram (1875) and al-Muqattam (1889). Free betting tips, Match Previews and Predictions, Head to Head (H2H), Team Comparison and Statistics. Yet, for the purposes of Arabic grammar and orthography, is treated as if it were not mispronounced and as if yet another word followed it, i.e., if adding any vowel marks, they must be added as if the pronunciation were Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīrun with a tanwīn 'un' at the end. Note that if a vowel occurs between the two consonants the letter will simply be written twice. (The generic term for such diacritical signs is ḥarakāt). There are two main collating sequences for the Arabic alphabet: abjad and hija. Arabic Language Academies had attempted to fulfill this role during the second half of the 20th century with neologisms with Arab roots, but MSA typically borrows terms from other languages to coin new terminology. Long ā following a hamzah may be represented by an ʾalif maddah or by a free hamzah followed by an ʾalif (two consecutive ʾalifs are never allowed in Arabic). [citation needed], Reading out loud in MSA for various reasons is becoming increasingly simpler, using less strict rules compared to CA, notably the inflection is omitted, making it closer to spoken varieties of Arabic. However, for compatibility with previous standards, the initial, medial, final and isolated forms can also be encoded separately. The basic Arabic range encodes the standard letters and diacritics but does not encode contextual forms (U+0621-U+0652 being directly based on ISO 8859-6). Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), is a term used mostly by Western linguists to refer to the variety of standardized, literary Arabic that developed in the Arab world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [7] The Western–Arabic contacts and technological developments in especially the newspaper industry indirectly caused the revival of Arabic literature, or Nahda, in the late 19th and early 20th century. Classical/vernacular mixing in formal writing can also be found (e.g., in some Egyptian newspaper editorials); others are written in Modern Standard/vernacular mixing, including entertainment news. The vowel before it indicates grammatical case. The Qurʾān is traditionally written in full vocalization. [citation needed], Literary Arabic (MSA) is the official language of all Arab League countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages. The standard consonant varies regionally, most prominently [d͡ʒ] in the Arabian Peninsula, parts of the Levant, Iraq, and northern Algeria and Sudan, [ʒ] in most of Northwest Africa and the Levant, [g] in Egypt and southern Yemen. So, it is correct to add an un tanwīn sign on the final r, but actually pronouncing it would be a hypercorrection. Videos and live streams of your favorite sports. The first book came off his press in 1734; this press continued in use until 1899.[14]. Burj Al Arab . Presidential Two Bedroom Suite. However, none of the sets indicates the form that each character should take in context. Results Service. There are two main kinds of numerals used along with Arabic text; Western Arabic numerals and Eastern Arabic numerals. To write qalaba without this ambiguity, we could indicate that the l is followed by a short a by writing a fatḥah above it. For clarity in the table, the primary letters on the left used to mark these long vowels are shown only in their isolated form. حَرَكَة ḥarakah is pronounced more like "ḥerekeh"; شَمْس shams is pronounced more like "shems". Perched on the upper floors, these duplex suites offers couples, or small families, seemingly endless views over the Ocean. In addition, when transliterating names and loanwords, Arabic language speakers write out most or all the vowels as long (ā with ا ʾalif, ē and ī with ي yaʾ, and ō and ū with و wāw), meaning it approaches a true alphabet. Pronunciation varies regionally. Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature. "Colloquial" Arabic refers to the many regional dialects derived from Classical Arabic spoken daily across the region and learned as a first language, and as second language if people speak other languages native to their particular country. The countries with the largest populations that mandate MSA be taught in all schools are, with rounded-up numbers (data from 2008—2014): "Standard Arabic" redirects here. Important texts were and still are frequently memorized, especially in Qurʾan memorization. Instead of writing the letter twice, Arabic places a W-shaped sign called shaddah, above it. Long vowels written in the middle of a word of unvocalized text are treated like consonants with a sukūn (see below) in a text that has full diacritics. The Arabic supplement range encodes letter variants mostly used for writing African (non-Arabic) languages. It is used at the end of words with the sound of /aː/ in Modern Standard Arabic that are not categorized in the use of, ترتيب المداخل والبطاقات في القوائم والفهارس الموضوعية. 18 points. The letter ن (n) also has the same form in initial and medial forms, with one dot above, though it is somewhat different in isolated and final form. [citation needed], Classical Arabic is considered normative; a few contemporary authors attempt (with varying degrees of success) to follow the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh) and to use the vocabulary defined in classical dictionaries (such as the Lisan al-Arab, Arabic: لِسَان الْعَرَب‎). They consider the two forms to be two registers of one language. This article uses panel estimation differentiating between bank fixed effects and country fixed effects. By the same token, m-y-t with a sukūn over the y can be mayt but not mayyit or meet, and m-w-t with a sukūn on the w can only be mawt, not moot (iw is impossible when the w closes the syllable). Another kind of hijāʾī order was used widely in the Maghreb until recently[when?] Amenities. The Arabic alphabet can be traced back to the Nabataean alphabet used to write Nabataean. Log into your Outlook, Skype, Hotmail The Greek Orthodox monk Abd Allah Zakhir set up an Arabic printing press using movable type at the monastery of Saint John at the town of Dhour El Shuwayr in Mount Lebanon, the first homemade press in Lebanon using Arabic script. Adaptations of the Arabic script for other languages added and removed some letters, as for Persian, Ottoman Turkish, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Malay, Pashto, Arwi and Malayalam (Arabi Malayalam), all of which have additional letters as shown below. Letters can exhibit up to four distinct forms corresponding to an initial, medial (middle), final, or isolated position (IMFI).