The General representative of Germany August Winnig formally handed over political power to the Latvian Provisional Government on 26 November. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of the Order of Livonia, formed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. The white wagtail (Motacilla alba, Latvian: baltā cielava) is Latvia's national bird. Selonia, a part of Zemgale, is sometimes considered culturally distinct region, but it is not part of any formal division. An internal document of 18 March 1987, near the end of communist rule, spoke of an active membership that had shrunk to only 25,000 in Latvia, but the faith has since experienced a revival. Champions League Matches; Cyber World Cup; Cyberleague Pro Series Rpl; Electroni [81] The government denationalized private property confiscated by the Soviets, returning it or compensating the owners for it, and privatized most state-owned industries, reintroducing the prewar currency. Instead, citizenship was granted to persons who had been citizens of Latvia at the day of loss of independence at 1940 as well as their descendants. [8], In September 2003, Latvia surprisingly finished second, ahead of Poland, in their qualifying group for Euro 2004. Latvia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy [27][28] and ranks 39th in the Human Development Index. XX V.). [69] Some managed to escape arrest and joined the partisans. [19] Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. The total length of its land boundary is 1,368 km (850 mi), of which 343 km (213 mi) is shared with Estonia to the north, 276 km (171 mi) with the Russian Federation to the east, 161 km (100 mi) with Belarus to the southeast and 588 km (365 mi) with Lithuania to the south. This aroused popular protests against the USSR and also gave rise to an increasing popularity of poetry. [148] Since 1996 more than 3600 military personnel have participated in international operations,[140] of whom 7 soldiers perished. Flying around LATVIA . The longest river flowing through Latvian territory is the Daugava, which has a total length of 1,005 km (624 mi), of which 352 km (219 mi) is on Latvian territory. [29] It performs favorably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance, living standards, and peacefulness. © 2007-2020 - All rights reserved. Citizenship was not automatically extended to former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet occupation, or to their offspring. 4 months ago. [citation needed], Privatisation in Latvia is almost complete. [9] This meant they qualified for the play-offs, where they were drawn against Turkey. [37], German crusaders were sent, or more likely decided to go on their own accord as they were known to do. The only other airport handling regular commercial flights is Liepāja International Airport. Still, today there are 290,660 non-citizens in Latvia, which represent 14.1% of the population. 250 people identify as Livonians (Baltic Finnic people native to Latvia). A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats. BK Ventspils, which participates in EuroChallenge, is the second strongest basketball club in Latvia, previously winning LBL eight times and BBL in 2013. [119] In 2013 Riga hosted the annual Northern Future Forum, a two-day informal meeting of the prime ministers of the Nordic-Baltic countries and the UK. [citation needed] Latvia was one of the EuroBasket 2015 hosts. Latvia won the first leg 1–0, through top goalscorer, Māris Verpakovskis. [164][2] The largest groups as of 2011[update] were: In the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 38% of Latvian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", while 48% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 11% stated that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". [211], Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians. Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather. State administrators were liquidated and replaced by Soviet cadres. [164], Latvia's unemployment rate rose sharply in this period from a low of 5.4% in November 2007 to over 22%. [176] The best known roads are A1 (European route E67), connecting Warsaw and Tallinn, as well as European route E22, connecting Ventspils and Terehova. As of 2014[update] there were 109 schools for minorities that use Russian as the language of instruction (27% of all students) for 40% of subjects (the remaining 60% of subjects are taught in Latvian). After eight qualifying matches, Latvia were level on points with their next opponent, second-placed Greece, but a 5–2 defeat virtually ended all hopes of qualification and Latvia finished third in UEFA Group 2. Despite the fact that the proportion of ethnic Latvians has been steadily increasing for more than a decade, ethnic Latvians also make up slightly less than a half of the population of the capital city of Latvia – Riga. Under Swedish and largely German rule, western Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. [74] The population of Latvia reached its peak in 1990 at just under 2.7 million people. Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in 1994 and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in 1998. This system also existed before World War II. [172], The four biggest ports of Latvia are located in Riga, Ventspils, Liepāja and Skulte. [195], Latvian policy in science and technology has set out the long-term goal of transitioning from labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy. The private sector accounted for nearly 68% of the country's GDP in 2000. Current NBA players include Kristaps Porziņģis, who plays for the Dallas Mavericks, Dāvis Bertāns, who plays for the Washington Wizards, and Rodions Kurucs, who plays for the Brooklyn Nets. Its national insect is the two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata, Latvian: divpunktu mārīte). [133][134] In 2011, the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities "urged Latvia to allow non-citizens to vote in municipal elections. [14] However, the Czechs would later come back to win the game 2–1. Article 8 of the Law currently entitles Latvijas Banka to perform foreign currency exchange operations at its discretion. [6] In April 1938, the Austrian Anschluss relegated the Austrian team, however, Latvia was not invited to the tournament by FIFA as the group's runner-up. [156] Following the introduction of the Euro, Eurobarometer surveys in January 2014 showed support for the Euro to be around 53%, close to the European average. [56]:271, More than 200,000 Latvian citizens died during World War II, including approximately 75,000 Latvian Jews murdered during the Nazi occupation. With most of Latvia's industrial base evacuated to the interior of Russia in 1915, radical land reform was the central political question for the young state. Latvia (/ˈlɑːtviə/ or /ˈlætviə/ (listen); Latvian: Latvija [ˈlatvija]), officially known as the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. [90], 2019 was the warmest year in the history of weather observation in Latvia with an average temperature +8.1°C higher. Every year more boys are born. The website features live and on demand videos, basketball news, over 70,00 players … [188], Beginning in 2019, instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools,[189][190] except for subjects related to culture and history of the Russian minority, such as Russian language and literature classes.[191]. In 1944, when Soviet military advances reached Latvia, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another German defeat. Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are automatically entitled to citizenship. In a typical Latvian landscape, a mosaic of vast forests alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures. Latvia (; ), officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, as well as a maritime border to the west alongside Sweden. There were 290,660 "non-citizens" living in Latvia or 14.1% of Latvian residents, mainly Russian settlers who arrived after the occupation of 1940 and their descendants. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century is often regarded by Latvians as a classical era of Latvian culture. The prices of real estate, which were at some points growing by approximately 5% a month, were long perceived to be too high for the economy, which mainly produces low-value goods and raw materials. [153] In January 2011, the Baltic states were invited to join NORDEFCO, the defence framework of the Nordic countries. During the transitional period, Moscow maintained many central Soviet state authorities in Latvia. [158] However, the chiefly consumption-driven growth in Latvia resulted in the collapse of Latvian GDP in late 2008 and early 2009, exacerbated by the global economic crisis, shortage of credit and huge money resources used for the bailout of Parex bank. [citation needed] On 15 May 1934, Ulmanis staged a bloodless coup, establishing a nationalist dictatorship that lasted until 1940. In 2016, Latvia had 8.5 global hectares[99] of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. On occasions, especially in 1944, opposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle.[56]:299. Recent Posts. Follow us. It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the United States, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century. [citation needed] A class of independent farmers established itself after reforms allowed the peasants to repurchase their land, but many landless peasants remained. [93] There are 706 specially state-level protected natural areas in Latvia: four national parks, one biosphere reserve, 42 nature parks, nine areas of protected landscapes, 260 nature reserves, four strict nature reserves, 355 nature monuments, seven protected marine areas and 24 microreserves. Lettonie. [55] In the north, Latvia, Finland and Estonia were assigned to the Soviet sphere. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the economy, but it soon suffered from the effects of the Great Depression. [citation needed], During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic and construction boom – ports were expanded (Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empire), railways built; new factories, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public (theatres and museums), and school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on. Latvia has ratified the international Washington, Bern, and Ramsare conventions. 28 mars 2017 - Découvrez le tableau "National Football Team Logo" de Sport Renaissance sur Pinterest. World Population Real Time Clock. [37] The southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Duchy of Livonia (Ducatus Livoniae Ultradunensis). Latvia participates in several NATO Centres of Excellence: Civil-Military Co-operation in the Netherlands, Cooperative Cyber Defence in Estonia and Energy Security in Lithuania. Transit between Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan as well as other Asian countries and the West is large. [118], Latvia participates in the Northern Dimension and Baltic Sea Region Programme, European Union initiatives to foster cross-border co-operation in the Baltic Sea region and Northern Europe. The most successful Olympic athlete in the history of independent Latvia has been Māris Štrombergs, who became a two-time Olympic champion in 2008 and 2012 at Men's BMX.[217]. In the summer of 1988, a national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latvia, was opposed by the Interfront. Since then, Lutheranism has declined to a slightly greater extent than Roman Catholicism in all three Baltic states. បានពី "" Interparliamentary co-operation between the Baltic Assembly and Nordic Council was signed in 1992 and since 2006 annual meetings are held as well as regular meetings on other levels. From the age of 40 – more female. [124][131], Approximately 206,000 non-citizens [132]– including stateless persons – have limited access to some political rights – only citizens are allowed to participate in parliamentary or municipal elections, although there are no limitations in regards to joining political parties or other political organizations. This program allows investors to get Latvia residence permit by investing at least €250,000 in property or in an enterprise with at least 50 employees and an annual turnover of at least €10M. : It is important that we approach the Latvian agreement in that spirit. [7], In 1940, Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union; the country regained its independence in 1991 and played their first match against Estonia on 16 November of that year in the Baltic Cup, and their first FIFA-recognized match against Romania on 8 April 1992 in Bucharest, a match, which Latvia lost 2–0. The ancient tribes of the Couronians, Semigallians, Selonians, Livs, and northern Latgallians assimilated to form the Latvian people, speaking one Latvian language. [200] There were 59 hospitals in Latvia in 2009, down from 94 in 2007 and 121 in 2006. The Latvian national football team's only major FIFA tournament participation has been the 2004 UEFA European Championship. English is also widely accepted in Latvia in business and tourism. Meanwhile, largely isolated from the rest of Latvia, southern Latgallians adopted Catholicism under Polish/Jesuit influence. [86][93], Latvia has the 5th highest proportion of land covered by forests in the European Union, after Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Slovenia. Latvia hosts one European Union institution, the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC). A History of Rome, M Cary and HH Scullard, p455-457, Macmillan Press. Continents Countries. [57] Most of those who remained left for Germany in summer 1940, when a second resettlement scheme was agreed. This led to the development of the Amber Road. After the Polish–Swedish War, northern Livonia (including Vidzeme) came under Swedish rule. French Translation for Lettonie - English-French Dictionary It is also a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and Nordic Investment Bank. Home | Dictionaries | About | Feedback SiteInfo. [113] Joint Nordic-Baltic co-operation initiatives include the education programme NordPlus[114] and mobility programmes for public administration,[115] business and industry[116] and culture. Statistical regions of Latvia, established in accordance with the EU Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, duplicate this division, but divides Riga region into two parts with the capital alone being a separate region. The national account deficit for 2007, for example, represented more than 22% of the GDP for the year while inflation was running at 10%. [57] In total 50,000 Baltic Germans left by the deadline of December 1939, with 1,600 remaining to conclude business and 13,000 choosing to remain in Latvia. [87][88][89], Coastal regions, especially the western coast of the Courland Peninsula, possess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and milder winters, while eastern parts exhibit a more continental climate with warmer summers and harsher winters. [44][45], Several important cultural changes occurred during this time. In 2011, there were 416 religious Jews, 319 Muslims and 102 Hindus. [citation needed] To maintain and expand industrial production, skilled workers were migrating from all over the Soviet Union, decreasing the proportion of ethnic Latvians in the republic. [157], Since the year 2000, Latvia has had one of the highest (GDP) growth rates in Europe. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. The Young Latvian (Latvian: Jaunlatvieši) movement laid the groundwork for nationalism from the middle of the century, many of its leaders looking to the Slavophiles for support against the prevailing German-dominated social order. Big European events have been celebrated in Riga such as the Eurovision Song Contest 2003 and the European Film Awards 2014. Representing 10.2% of Latvia's total foreign direct investment, American companies invested $127 million in 1999. Unique geological conditions at Inčukalns and other locations in Latvia are particularly suitable for underground gas storage.[178]. Ligue A Grosse surprise à Kiev. [85], Most of Latvia's territory is less than 100 m (330 ft) above sea level. Look up the French to German translation of Lettonie in the PONS online dictionary. Latvia is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. Buy La Lettonie en Europe: Latvija Eiropa (Hors collection Histoire et géographie) by Foucher, Michel, Orcier, Pascal (ISBN: 9789984372334) from Amazon's Book Store. [121], Latvia hosted the 2006 NATO Summit and since then the annual Riga Conference has become a leading foreign and security policy forum in Northern Europe. [40], After the Livonian War (1558–1583), Livonia (Northern Latvia & Southern Estonia) fell under Polish and Lithuanian rule. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. [113] Nordic-Baltic Six (NB-6), comprising Nordic-Baltic countries that are European Union member states, is a framework for meetings on EU-related issues. [65] Most sources count 200,000 to 250,000 refugees leaving Latvia, with perhaps as many as 80,000 to 100,000 of them recaptured by the Soviets or, during few months immediately after the end of war,[66] returned by the West. At this time, songs often made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity. [citation needed] The Young Latvians were largely eclipsed by the New Current, a broad leftist social and political movement, in the 1890s. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities. The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election, also held every four years. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania reemerged from Soviet occupation. After the German surrender, it became clear that Soviet forces were there to stay, and Latvian national partisans, soon joined by some who had collaborated with the Germans, began to fight against the new occupier. Latvia played their first match in 1922, a game against Estonia, which finished in a 1–1 draw. [11][12] At Euro 2004, Latvia were drawn in Group D, alongside Germany, Czech Republic, and Netherlands. Suis ton équipe sur OneFootball. [80], Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones. [citation needed] In practice, however, the emancipation was actually advantageous to the landowners and nobility,[citation needed] as it dispossessed peasants of their land without compensation, forcing them to return to work at the estates "of their own free will". They promoted Latvian culture and encouraged Latvians to take part in cultural activities. Capital city Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. [51] The constitution was partly suspended by Kārlis Ulmanis after his coup in 1934 but reaffirmed in 1990. Country code: LVA Centre code: 43. [citation needed]. 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